Figure CNF4.2 shows the average reading scores for this group and for year four students in Small Island States in previous PILNA cycles. The average score in 2021 was lower than in all previous PILNA cycles but the standard deviation for the average reading score in 2021 was higher than in previous PILNA cycles. This means that the spread of year four overall reading scores was wider in 2021 than in previous years.
Standard deviation shows how close data points are to the average. A lower standard deviation means that data points are, overall, closer to the average; a higher standard deviation means that data points are, overall, further away from the average.