Figure CNF6.4 shows the average numeracy performance of year six students in Small Island States by gender. Year six girls scored higher than year six boys in all numeracy areas, including the overall numeracy score. This was similar to PILNA 2015, when year six girls, on average, scored higher than year six boys in all numeracy areas, including the overall numeracy score (see Figure CNF6.4.1). In 2018, however, year six girls scored about the same as boys in all numeracy areas, except the ‘Data & Chance’ strand, where girls scored slightly higher on average. Further statistical testing needs to be performed to understand if these differences in scores are significant or the result of chance or outliers.