Abbreviations used throughout the report.

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ACER: Australian Council for Educational Research

CCEM: Conference of Commonwealth Education Ministers

ECE: Early Childhood Education

EQAP: Educational Quality and Assessment Programme

FEdMM: Forum Education Ministers Meeting

FSM: Federated States of Micronesia

IRT: Item Response Theory

ISCED: International Standard Classification of Education

OECD: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development

PacREF: Pacific Regional Education Framework

PacSIMS: Pacific School Information Management System

PBEQ: Pacific Board for Education Quality

PILNA: Pacific Islands Literacy and Numeracy Assessment

PVs: Plausible Values

RMI: Republic of the Marshall Islands

SDGs: (United Nations) Sustainable Development Goals

SIS: Small Island States

UNDP: United Nations Development Programme

UNESCO: United Nations Education, Scientific and Cultural Organization