National PILNA findings should be used, where appropriate, to create necessary change and improve social and educational outcomes. While national needs may be different from regional needs, some specific actions based on the regional PILNA findings are given below.
3.1. Design and deliver targeted interventions for student performance in literacy and numeracy if needed.
If substantial student performance gaps are found, governments are encouraged to design and deliver targeted interventions for students. This should be done in collaboration with education practitioners and leaders. Government stakeholders could take a supportive role in delivery, such as resourcing and planning, or directly engage with students and teachers.These interventions could be short and intensive to mitigate any learning that was missed or uniquely disrupted over the past few years. Addressing performance gaps in this cohort may help reduce any negative educational consequences that could emerge as they progress through schooling.The numeracy, reading, and writing sections outline specific areas that students had difficulty with across the region. These areas may be useful starting points for interventions.
3.2. Identify the need for, support and provide professional development activities for education professionals.
If needs are identified, government stakeholders should enable the development of education professionals in their country. Teachers and educators may have crucial development needs. PILNA regional findings suggest that development may be needed in three areas.· Numeracy and literacy teaching, particularly literacy teaching and, within this, teaching unstructured literacy areas, such as quality of ideas in writing· Formative assessment practices.· Strategies to support student well-being and students with learning difficulties.Government stakeholders might consider providing professional development activities directly or supporting the structures that enable professional development. The latter might include strengthening, resourcing or developing professional learning networks and other peer learning structures.
3.3. Identify and address any challenges to resourcing local education systems.
Governments are encouraged to address any resource challenges for their education systems that are identified. PILNA regional findings suggest that challenges could emerge in the areas of school infrastructure, teaching and learning materials, and teacher availability and quality. Collaborative and regional approaches to resource challenges are encouraged.
3.4. Review the effectiveness of national and local student support mechanisms in supporting student well-being and students with learning difficulties if relevant.
If challenges are identified with student well-being or if students with learning difficulties are not being adequately supported, governments are encouraged to review their student support mechanisms to ascertain if changes are needed. Governments could consider implementing national changes or supporting school and community-based efforts to strengthen student support.
3.5. Provide guidance to education bodies and the public on supporting literacy and numeracy education.
Where relevant, government stakeholders could consider providing guidance to all stakeholders on enabling and delivering good literacy and numeracy education. This might include guidance for teachers and educators about best practices in delivery; guidance for parents about how to support their child’s reading, writing, and mathematics outside of school; and guidance for community groups on how best to support schools.This could be achieved through formal communications plans and materials or by unstructured provision of expertise, such as the establishment of open communication with stakeholders.