How data were collected » Translation

In line with the definition of literacy for PILNA, participating countries were given the opportunity to choose the language their students would complete the instruments in at both year four and year six levels.

Performance in numeracy and literacy can be demonstrated in any language; giving different language options enables a truer assessment of literacy and numeracy performance.

Nine countries opted for translated versions of the PILNA instruments. Table 2.3 shows the countries that opted for translated instruments, the target language that the instruments were translated into, and the specific instruments that were translated in these countries.

Table OPQ#2

Data collection instruments and instructions that were translated for implementation