Contextual data were collected through three instruments: a student questionnaire, a teacher questionnaire, and a school leader questionnaire (head teacher / principal).
Students completed a questionnaire attached to the numeracy assessment and their teachers and school leaders were supplied with questionnaires separately.
While collecting contextual information is recognised as best practice for international large-scale assessments, contextual data collection is relatively new to PILNA. The 2018 PILNA cycle was the first cycle to implement contextual instruments.
Analysing the contextual data alongside the cognitive data provided information underpinning student performance. Furthermore, analysing the associations between the contextual data and student performance allowed for more evidenced and targeted improvement strategies to be created. And as the contextual information extended beyond the classroom environment, interventions and improvement strategies could also be crafted beyond the classroom environment.